The findings under this theme illustrate the pervasive nature of fatalism in Pakistan in relation to RTC.Then, to explore their beliefs and attitudes, respondents were probed to elaborate on their interpretation of the items and to discuss their reason s for agreeing or disagreeing with each statement. Citing such risk factors for breast cancer as heredity and obesity, many respondents attempted to engage in healthy behaviors e. Fatalismo reconsidered: a cautionary note for health-related research and practice with Latino populations. We turn to this notion of destino next. Truck driver, male, primary school education, 49 years old Participants not only expressed their beliefs in relation to their driving behaviour but also in the performance of other life events in accordance with religion. I do not believe in destiny. It can become a rejection of any personal commitment. Therefore, these findings suggest that, counter to the cancer fatalism literature, beliefs in predestination do not necessarily translate into pessimistic views about certainty of death from breast cancer. Themes concerning the problematic nature of early detection were most apparent in narratives about young celebrities who were diagnosed with cancer, or other women personally known by participants. It is interesting to note that spirituality or religious beliefs are also linked with fatalism in several other studies [ 17 , 30 ].
In addition to endorsing cancer-prevention health practices, many respondents asserted that regular mammography screening is critical for early detection of breast cancer.
In Pakistan, messages about the relationship between crash risk and speeding — or not wearing a helmet, or any other risky behaviour — lack popular credibility.
Powe BD. Coded narratives were then analyzed to yield a conceptual framework representing themes of breast cancer, screening, and fatalism.
Erika In my opinion — well, [doctors] always recommend between 35 and 40 years of age yet there are so many young women suffering from breast cancer. We can change in order to become better people…like me going [back] to school.
Furthermore, participants avoid any dissonance between internal and external forces after accessing the range of means within their reach e. For the majority of participants in this sample, the notion of agency will to change and external determinants e.For a country like Pakistan, fatalism is so ingrained in everyday thinking and mindsets that it is certainly a major contributing factor to the high numbers of people that die on the roads every year. This exploration of agency as it related to health, breast cancer, and breast cancer screening served as the analytic framework resulting in the following themes: 1 positive beliefs about screening and early detection, 2 complex beliefs in destino destiny that involve both agency and external forces e. The main themes relevant to fatalism that emerged from the thematic analysis were as follows: General fatalism with separate reference to sociodemographic factors Fate expressed in RTC Religion and fatalism Implications for risky behaviour as a consequence of fatalism Additional themes that are not reported here due to space constraints include fatalism about the purchase of safe vehicles and the overlap between fatalism and culture. All of these groups expressed strong fatalistic beliefs, regardless of education and role. As a result, eyewitnesses to a RTC appear to dismiss human error and attribute it to the fate of the people involved. Speeding does not inevitably lead to a crash, but it does increase the likelihood that a crash will occur and that the injuries will be severe. The Implications of Fatalism What is the significance of fatalism? The family of the people who died and were injured showed patience considering it is fate. Their ideas surrounding predetermination were couched within a much more complex belief system that included individual agency as an element of change. Taxi driver, male, no education, 46 years old Int: Why do you think you had this road crash? Fatalism thus consists of both acceptance and denial. Results Demographic and Screening Characteristics Respondents ranged in age from 40 to 74 years, with a mean of 58 years.
A few additional issues warrant mention.