However, Regan was to become the issue's main exponent, contending that animals possess 'a value in themselves' and thus have rights and cannot be utilized as mere means in animal experimentation.
Inneurologist Marshall Hall apud Paton, laid down principles on which physiological experiments should be based for physiological science to limit uncertainty and cruelty and for such experimentation to be seen as an important branch of knowledge and scientific research. Understanding ourselves and the world in which we live is not merely an intellectual exercise—it defines us as humans.
In Darwin's England, the debate over using animals in research contributed to the approval of the first legislation aimed at regulating animal experimentation: The Cruelty to Animals Act Ryder, According to Rogersdifferent forms of perception by animals are relevant for admitting the possibility that animals have other feelings and emotions, and that different animal species have different forms of conscience, following a long evolutionary pathway.
This attitude plus their lack of regard for truth makes debate and dialogue impossible. Rose, eds.
Published online Mar Animals are of such a kind that it is impossible for them, in principle, to give or withhold voluntary consent or to make a moral choice.