Arguments against corrective surgery derive from the personal and social disbenefit which would result from such surgery. Since I do not want my neighbor to steal my car, then it is wrong for me to steal her car.
Third, they are equal in the sense that rights are the same for all people, irrespective of gender, race, or handicap.
Interest in virtue theory continued through the middle ages and declined in the 19th century with the rise of alternative moral theories below. Starting from the premise that the goal of ethical philosophy should be to help humans adapt and thrive in evolutionary terms, Kropotkin's ethical framework uses biology and anthropology as a basis — in order to scientifically establish what will best enable a given social order to thrive biologically and socially — and advocates certain behavioural practices to enhance humanity's capacity for freedom and well-being, namely practices which emphasise solidarity, equality, and justice.
Rights: acknowledge a person's rights to life, information, privacy, free expression, and safety.
According to Ross, I will intuitively know which of these duties is my actual duty, and which is my apparent or prima facie duty. Donating to charity, for example, is morally correct since this acknowledges the inherent value of the recipient.
The principles of autonomy, justice, and the various rights are based on moral rights. Ethical Altruism: an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone except the agent.
Moore proposed ideal utilitarianism, which involves tallying any consequence that we intuitively recognize as good or bad and not simply as pleasurable or painful. In the Louvre in Paris there is a black Babylonian column with a relief showing the sun god Shamash presenting the code of laws to Hammurabi died c.