These nation-to-nation con- tracts and agreements go back to the early encounters between European settlers and local nations, when they entered into agreements for the benefit of both sides.
Indigenous people in Canada met their European counterparts on more or less equal terms with mutual benefits.
Many survivors report that not only did they return to their communities with a high degree of trauma but they had few resources to help them cope with their experiences. Disease, dispossession and direct conflict InCaptain Arthur Phillip and 1, convicts, crew, marines and civilians arrived at Sydney Cove.
The program focuses on restoring the cultural practices and relationships that historically promoted wellness in Aboriginal cultures and societies, many of which are connected to land through ceremony, collection and use of medicines, and other activities.
In some cases, they encouraged literacy, the adoption of Western human rights standardsand sowed the seeds for democratic institutions and systems of government.
With the rush, mining became the predominant economic activity: at its peak, there were as many as 20, prospectors. In fact, what would it be like if they took control of your house and made you relocate far away?
The exclusion of Aboriginal peoples from their lands and resources, the imposition of foreign land use and governance systems including the reserve system and band form of governance ,2 the Indian Residential School System and the Aboriginal child welfare system have each left legacies of intergenerational trauma.
Colonialism continues to influence Indigenous communities to the present day.The diplomatic protocols and undertakings between Europeans and Indigenous peoples quickly developed into a new treaty-making dynamic that adopted and adapted aspects of each culture. This photo is from the s, when the extensiveness of the trade network had much declined from its peak in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Ottawa: Council of the Federation Secretariat. Their territory is not only invaded, but their game is driven back, their marnong and other valuable roots are eaten by the white man's sheep and their deprivation, abuse and miseries are daily increasing. The Indian Residential School System is one of the better-known examples of an intergenerational colonial system with impacts that still reverberate today. However, we can see the possibilities for reconciliation in restorative practices that shift relationships. Children were taken from their families and forced to live in unfamiliar, hostile environments, where beatings and other forms of ill treatment were the norm. This impact includes shared collective memories that affect the health and well-being of individuals and communities and that may be passed on from parent to child, and beyond. Frazier, K. A great many children from successive generations were taken from the family home and placed in the child welfare system. They had missed out on learning their own cultural ways of coping, and practising good health, wellness and parenting.
Date modified:. Social work in Canada: An introduction 2nd ed. Restorative Aboriginal child welfare in diverse urban spaces.
Prior to British settlement, more than Indigenous groups inhabited the Australian continent, approximatelypeople in total.
This area of research now includes survivors of natural disasters, Japanese internment camps, war, Indian residential schools and child abuse.